Alphabetical index of instructions
:= - assignment
+ - sum
- - difference
* - product
/ - quotient
% - remainder
^ - power
+= -= *= /= - "in place" arithmetic operations
< <= > >= = <> - comparisons
|| && ! - logical operations
| - bitwise OR
& - bitwise AND
|= &= - "in place" bitwise operations
, - item or character at index
@ - access to class members
Single letter abbreviations
: - value of a variable
# - turtle with a name
$ - function as a value
abs - absolute value
alignh - set turtle's heading to its move direction
all - list of all turtles
and - conjunction
anewt - create new object (asynchronous constructor)
anewobject - create new object (asynchronous constructor)
anewobjects - create new objects (asynchronous constructor)
anewp - create new plot (asynchronous constructor)
anewplot - create new plot (asynchronous constructor)
anewt - create new turtle (asynchronous constructor)
anewturtle - create new turtle (asynchronous constructor)
anewturtles - create new turtles (asynchronous constructor)
apply - apply code to items in collection
arc - draw an arc
array - create an array
array? - is this an array?
arrayp - is this an array?
arraytolist - create a list from an array
back - step backward (opposite to the turtle's heading)
bf - copy except the first item or character
bitand - bitwise AND
bitnot - bitwise NOT
bitor - bitwise OR
bitxor - bitwise XOR
bk - step backward (opposite to the turtle's heading)
bl - copy except the last item or character
bool? - is this a boolean value?
boolp - is this a boolean value?
bounce - set mode of crossing the edges
break - exit from a loop
butfirst - copy except the first item or character
butlast - copy except the last item or character
button - create a button
call - dynamic call to a function
checkbox - create a checkbox
checked? - is checkbox checked?
checkedp - is checkbox checked?
children - list of child turtles
clean - clean the graphics window
clearall - clear all
clearscreen - go back to (0, 0), clear the graphics window
col - selected column(s) from a collection
color - get a color components array
column - selected column(s) from a collection
contains? - contains item or word
containsp - contains item or word
cos - cosinus of an angle in degrees
count - number of items in a set or characters in a word
cs - go back to (0, 0), clear the graphics window
defined? - is function defined?
definedp - is function defined?
dequeue - return item from a queue
destroy - delete a turtle
difference - difference
distance - distance to a point or a turtle
do.until [instructions] condition - loop
do.while [instructions] condition - loop
empty? - is this an empty set or word?
emptyp - is this an empty set or word?
eventdisable - disable handling function
eventenable - enable handling function
exp - exponent function
fd - step forward (in the turtle's heading)
fence - set mode of crossing the edges
first - the first item or character
file? - does the file exists?
filep - does the file exists?
filelist - list of files
for [i start stop step] [instructions] - loop
foreach x data_set [instructions] - loop
forever [instructions] - loop
forward - step forward (in the direction of turtle's heading)
fput - create a copy with an extra item or character in front
func - get function as a value
func? - is this a function?
funcp - is this a function?
genarray - create an array using code
gettext - get text content from a GUI element
getvalue - get current value of a GUI element
global - create new empty global variable
headdir - direction vector of a turtle's heading
heading - turtle's heading in degrees
hideturtle - hide turtle's icon
histogram - calculate histogram
home - go back to position (0, 0)
ht - hide turtle's icon
if condition [instructions]
ifelse condition [instr_true] [instr_false]
ignore - ignore result of an expression
image - create an image
image? - is this an image?
imagep - is this an image?
include - include source code file
inf? - is this an infinity?
infp - is this an infinity?
int - integer part of a number
item - item or character at selected index
label - create a label
last - the last item or character
left - turn left
let - set or create local variable
line - draw a line
list - create a list
list? - is this a list?
listp - is this a list?
listtoarray - create an array from a list
listview - create a listview
local - create an empty local variable
localmake - set or create local variable
lock - execute instructions with exclusive access to a variable
log - logarithm
lput - create a copy with an extra item or character at the end
lshift - logical shift to the left
lt - turn left
make - set or create global variable
max - maximum value
mean - mean value
min - minimum value
modulo - remainder from division
mousepos - current position of the mouse
move - step in turtle's move direction
movedir - get turtle's move direction
nan? - is this an undefined number?
nanp - is this an undefined number?
name - set or create global variable
name? - is variable defined?
namep - is variable defined?
neginf? - is this a negative infinity?
neginfp - is this a negative infinity?
newarray - create an array
newo - create new object (synchronous constructor)
newobject - create new object (synchronous constructor)
newobjects - create new objects (synchronous constructor)
newp - create new turtle (synchronous constructor)
newplot - create new plot (synchronous constructor)
newt - create new plot (synchronous constructor)
newturtle - create new turtle (synchronous constructor)
newturtles - create new turtles (synchronous constructor)
not - negation
null? - is this an empty value?
nullp - is this an empty value?
number? - is this a number?
numberp - is this a number?
object? - is this an object/plot/turtle?
objectp - is this an object/plot/turtle?
op - return result from a function
or - disjunction
output - return result from a function
palette - create an array of colors from a palette
parent - parent turtle
parse - create a list from a word
pc - get pen color
pd - pen down (start drawing)
pencolor - get pen color
pendown - pen down (start drawing)
pendown? - is pen down?
pendownp - is pen down?
pensize - get pen size
penup - pen up (stop drawing)
pick - random item or character
plist - create a dictionary
plist? - is this a dictionary?
plistp - is this a dictionary?
plot? - is this a plot?
plotp - is this a plot?
point - get color at current position
pointat - get color at given position
pointxy - get color at given coordinates
pop - return item from a stack
pos - get turtle's position
power - power
product - product
posinf? - is this a positive infinity?
posinfp - is this a positive infinity?
print - write in the text output
ps - get pen size
pu - pen up (stop drawing)
push - put item on a stack
putpoint - blend color at current position
putpointat - blend color at given position
putpointxy - blend color at given coordinates
queue - add item to a queue
quotient - quotient
radcos - cosine of an angle in radians
radius - get radius of a turtle
radsin - sinus of an angle in radians
radtan - tangent of an angle in radians
random - random integer number
range - array of integers from a range
readarray - read array from a file
readfile - read file content as a single word (string)
readimage - read image from a file
readlist - read list from a file
readmatrix - read matrix from a file
readnumpy - read array from a numpy file
ref - reference to an item at index
reflect - reflect the vector of move direction
refresh - refresh content of the grafhics window
remainder - remainder from division
render - render graphics with a function
repcount - iteration counter
repeat n [instructions] - loop
rerandom - initialize the random number generator
right - turn right
rnorm - random number from a normal distribution
round - the nearest integer number
row - return selected rows in a collection
rt - turn right
run - dynamically execute an instruction list
runif - random number from an uniform distribution
savescr - write content of the grafhics window to a file
se - create a list
select - select items from a collection
sentence - create a list
set - set item at index
setbackground - set bacground color
setbg - set bacground color
setcolor - create new color
seth - set turtle's heading in degrees
setheading - set turtle's heading in degrees
setheaddir - set turtle's heading vector
setitem - set item at index
setmovedir - set turtle's move direction
setname - set turtle's name
setonclick - set click handler for a GUI element
setonchange - set value changed handler for a GUI element
setpalette - set color palette
setpencolor - set pen color
setpensize - set pen size
setpc - set pen color
setpoint - set color at current position
setpointat - set color at given position
setpointxy - set color at given coordinates
setpos - set turtle's position
setps - set pen size
setr - set turtle's radius
setradius - set turtle's radius
settc - set color of a turtle's icon
settext - set text content of a GUI element
setti - set turtle's icon
setturtlecolor - set color of a turtle's icon
setturtleimg - set turtle's icon
setvalue - set current value of a GUI element
setx - set turtle's X coordinate
setxy - set turtle's coordinates
sety - set turtle's Y coordinate
shared - create an empty shared variable
shown? - is turtle visible?
shownp - is turtle visible?
showturtle - show turtle's icon
sign - get the sign of a number
signal - raise a signal
signalw - raise blocking signal
sin - sinus of an angle in degrees
slider - create a slider
sqrt - square root
st - show turtle icon
stamp - draw image at current position
stampat - draw image at given position
stampxy - draw image at given coordinates
stdev - standard deviation value
stop - exit from a function
stoptimer - stop a timer
submatrix - select rows and columns from a collelction
sum - sum
sync - hold execution
syncr - hold execution and refresh graphics
talkto - set active turtle
tan - tangent of an angle in degrees
tc - get color of a turtle's icon
textbox - create a text box
ti - get turtle's icon
thing - get value of a variable
this - current turtle
time2word - convert time value to a readable string
timemilli - time from a program start
timenow - current time
timer - create a timer
timer? - is this a timer?
timerp - is this a timer?
towards - heading in degrees towards a point
toword - convert to a word
tto - set active turtle
turtle - get a turtle
turtle? - is this a turtle?
turtlecolor - get color of a turtle's icon
turtleimg - get turtle's icon
turtlep - is this a turtle?
until condition [instructions] - loop
use - declaration of inheritance from a base class
validnum? - is this a valid number?
validnump - is this a valid number?
wait - hold execution
waitsignal - wait for a signal
while condition [instructions] - loop
window - set mode of crossing the edges
who - get turtle's name
word - create a word
word? - is this a word?
wordp - is this a word?
world - turtle's world name
wrap - set mode of crossing the edges
writedata - write data to a file
writeimage - write image to a file
xcor - get turtle's X coordinate
xor - exclusive disjunction
ycor - get turtle's Y coordinate
Table of Content